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Tips for Participation - Columbus State University

Department of Politics, Philosophy, and Public Administration

Tips for Participation

Caucusing

North Atlanta Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • Albania
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Turkey
  • Uk
  • USA

Commonwealth Of

  • Azerbaijan
  • Armenia
  • Belarus
  • Georgia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Moldova
  • Russia
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Ukraine

Group of Eight (G8)

  • Canada
  • EU
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Suspended Russia
  • UK
  • USA

European Union (EU)

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxemburg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Uk

African Union (AU)

  • Algeria
  • Angola
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cape Verde
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Democratic Republic
  • Djibouti
  • DRC
  • Egypt
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Príncipe
  • Rep of the Congo
  • Rwanda
  • Sahrawi Arab
  • São Tomé
  • Senegal
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Swaziland
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Tunisia
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Benin
  • Brunei
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Cote d’Ivoire
  • Djibouti
  • Egypt
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palestine
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Syria
  • Sweden
  • Tajikistan
  • Togo
  • Tunisia
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uganda
  • UAE
  • Uzbekistan
  • Yemen

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  • Algeria
  • Angola
  • Ecuador
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Kuwait
  • Libya
  • Nigeria
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • UAE
  • Venezuela

Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC)

  • Bahrain
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • UAE

Group of Twenty (G20) Finance

  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • China
  • France
  • France
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Mexico
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • South Africa
  • Turkey
  • Uk
  • USA
  • EU

Security Council (SC)

  • Angola
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China
  • France
  • Jordan
  • Lithuania
  • Malaysia
  • New Zealand
  • Nigeria
  • Russia
  • Spain
  • Uk
  • USA
  • Venezuela

League of Arab States

  • Algeria
  • Bahrain
  • Comoros
  • Djibouti
  • Egypt
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  •  

Observers:

  • Brazil
  • Emirates
  • Eritrea
  • India
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Oman
  • Palestine
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • United Arab
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen

The moderated caucus is a new addition to CSUMUN. In this type of caucus, the committee focuses on a specific facet of the topic at hand for a detailed discussion. The motion for these caucuses will delineate the overall time, speaker's time, and subject of the caucus. There is no speaker's list, and delegates will raise placards to be called upon in order to speak. The moderated caucus is useful to focus the committee on a specific subtopic for consideration.

How to Motion for a Moderated Caucus

  • During formal debate, any delegate can request a moderated caucus by making the following motion:"(Member State) moves for a suspension of the meeting for the purpose of a ___ minute moderated caucus, with a speaker's time of ____, discussing ___."
  • Example: Spain moves for a suspension of the meeting for the purpose of a 20 minute moderated caucus,with a speaker's time of 45 seconds, discussing financing for draft resolution 1.1
  • Remember, you must include (1) total length of time; (2) speakers time; and (3) topic for discussion for every moderated caucus motion.
  • Once the dais accepts the motion, a vote will be taken and a simple majority is required for the motion to pass
  • Motions for suspension of the meeting are not applicable during voting procedures

Things to remember and consider

  • If the motion for moderated caucus passes, the chair will ask the delegation that made the motion if they reserve the right to speak first. Delegations may reserve this right, or refuse.
  • If the motion for moderated caucus fails, the committee may move back into formal debate, or continue voting on motions that are still on the floor.
  • Unmoderated caucuses take precedence over moderated caucuses
  • Moderated caucuses remain on the table for voting once a different moderated caucus or an unmoderated caucus has expired.
  • Make sure to clearly define your topic for consideration in the moderated caucus. Get a feel of the committee with regards to the topic of moderated caucus, giving you an idea of how specific to make the topic.
  • If delegates are not raising their placards to speak, the chair may use their discretion to end the moderated caucus prior to the end of the stated time.

Unmoderated caucusing is an essential part of your committee experience. These intermittent breaks from formal debate, allow delegates the freedom to move about the committee room and discuss the topic at hand with their fellow delegates. During unmoderated caucuses, you will collaborate and negotiate with the other committee members to create working papers that will move toward becoming draft resolutions.

How to Motion for a Unmoderated Caucus

  • During formal debate, any delegate can request a unmoderated caucus by motioning for the "suspension of the meeting for an unmoderated caucus"
  • A delegate must also state the length of time that you want the caucus to last. For example: "Nigeria motions for a suspension of the meeting for the purpose of an unmoderated caucus for a period of 20 minutes."
  • Once the dais accepts the motion, a vote will be taken and a simple majority is required for the motion to pass
  • Motions for suspension of the meeting are not applicable during voting procedures.

TIPS FOR CAUCUSING EFFECTIVELY: TAKE THE DIPLOMACY CHALLENGE!

  • Discuss - Past resolutions, sub topics, data, charts, maps, etc are valuable keys to creating solid resolutions and will be very helpful to your fellow delegates. Offer these items during your discussions.
  • Invite - Ask other members of your regional block to join you in discussion.
  • Plan - Choose which ideas are most important and which ones have room for negotiation.
  • Listen - Allowing other delegates to speak will add to the discussion and help flesh out possible solutions.
  • One on One - Incorporate individuals that you may not have heard from and get their opinions on the issues.
  • Mind the time - Stay focused on the topic and the discussions that will truly create a phenomenal resolution.
  • Ask questions - If you disagree with another delegate, calmly ask questions that will help you better understand their position. Find out if there is any common ground and focus on ideas that you can agree on.
  • Connect - Establish great relationships by learning your fellow delegate's names, and more about their ideas.
  • Yes - The ultimate goal is a resolution that the committee will vote on. Keep that in mind by respecting other delegates to the fullest during your negotiations.

Resolution Writing

Resolution Writing Template (PDF)

1. Working Paper

  • Most work is done in this stage
  • Flush out ideas
  • Collaboration/Communication
  • Paper should only be referred toas a "working paper"
  • Can be easily changed or edited
  • Expect several rounds of edits from the dais

Merging

  • Sometimes there are too many different working papers with similar ideas and the dais will ask groups to merge their working papers together.
  • Don't panic! At the beginning of the committee session, work is often done in small groups and many similar ideas are often being addressed simultaneously.
  • The dais wants the committee to be successful, so the goal of merging is to create a quality comprehensive document.

Merging Tips

  • Be open-minded, flexible, and promote compromise and cooperation through diplomacy
  • Work with different groups to discuss your similar ideas and how you can create a cohesive document
  • The dais wants the committee to be successful, so the goal of merging is to create a quality comprehensive document.

Sponsors V. Signatories:

Each working paper will require a certain number of sponsors and signatories, to be considered as a draft resolution. The number required will vary by committee and will be announced by the Dais during the first committee session.

If you are a sponsor to a working paper:

  • You actively assist in the authoring of the paper and you agree fully with the substance.
  • You must vote in favor of the working paper should it become a draft resolution.
  • You must approve all modifications and immediate changes to the draft resolution.

If you are a signatory to a working paper:

  • You do not have to agree with the substance of the paper, only that you want to see it debated.
  • You may vote in favor, against, or abstain should it become a draft resolution.
  • You may introduce amendments without the consent of the sponsors.

2. Draft Resolution

  • Dais edits are complete and the working paper has been introduced to the committee as a "draft resolution"
  • No longer referred to as a working paper
  • Collaboration/Communication
  • Changes can only be made through amendments or modifications
  • Amendments and modifications must be approved by the dais prior to entering voting procedure
  • Vote on amendments through division of the question

3. Resolution

  • Document has been voted on and accepted by the committee.

The preamble of a draft resolution states the reasons for which the committee is addressing the topic and high- lights past international action on the issue. Each clause begins with a present participle (called a preambulatory phrase) and ends with a comma.

Preambulatory clauses can include:

  • References to the UN Charter;
  • Citations of past UN resolutions or treaties on the topic under discussion;
  • Citations of past UN resolutions or treaties on the topic under discussion;
  • Mentions of statements made by the Secretary-General or a relevant UN body or agency;
  • Recognition of the efforts of regional or nongovernmental organizations in dealing with the issue; and General statements on the topic, its significance and its impact.

Sample Preambulatory Phrases

Affirming
Alarmed by
Approving
Aware of
Bearing in mind
Believing
Confident
Contemplating
Convinced
Declaring
Deeply concerned
Deeply convinced
Deeply disturbed
Deeply regretting
Desiring
Appreciation
Emphasizing
Expecting
Expressing its
Fulfilling
Fully alarmed
Fully aware
Fully believing
Further deploring
Further recalling
Guided by
Having adopted
Satisfaction
Having Considered
Attention
Concern
Further
Having Devoted
Having examined
Having received
Having studied
Keeping in mind
Noting with regret
Noting with deep
Noting with satisfaction
Noting further
Noting with approval
Appreciation
Consideration
Observing
Reaffirming
Realizing
Recalling
Recognizing
Seeking
Taking into account
Taking into
Taking note
Viewing with
Welcoming

Operative Clauses

Operative clauses identify the actions or recommendations made in a resolution. Each operative clause begins with a verb (called an operative phrase) and ends with a semicolon. Operative clauses should be organized in a logical progression, with each containing a single idea or proposal, and are always numbered. If a clause requires further explanation, bulleted lists set off by letters or roman numerals can also be used. After the last operative clause, the resolution ends in a period.


Sample Perative Phrases

Accepts
Affirms
Approves
Authorizes
Calls
Calls upon
Condemns
Confirms
Congratulates
Considers
Declares accordingly
Deplores
Appreciation
Deplores
Designates
Draws the attention
Emphasizes
Encourages
Endorses
Expresses its
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Emphasizes
Appreciation
Encourages
Endorses
Expresses its
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Further proclaims
Further reminds
Further recommends
Further requests
Further resolves
Has resolved
Notes
Proclaims
Reaffirms
Recommends
Regrets
Reminds
Requests
Solemnly affirms
Strongly condemns
Supports
Takes note of
Transmits
Trusts

Working Papers

Before a document is accepted by the Dais to be voted on it is referred to as a working paper.

  • A working paper must have the following attributes to be accepted as a draft resolution:At least one Sponsor.
  • A combination of signatories and sponsors to equal 25% of the committee present during the first session.
  • Sponsors have had substantive additions either through direct clauses or impactful ideas to the working paper. These are the only individuals called to the Dais when edits are returned.
  • Signatories are Member States who would like to see the idea debated and do not necessarily have to agree with the idea.

Draft Resolutions

Once a working paper has been accepted to the Dais it is then referred to as a draft resolution

  • Once a draft resolution has been accepted preambulatory clauses cannot be altered.
  • Draft resolutions will be titled based on the topic being discussed and in the order they are selected. The topics are numbered based on how the delegates have ordered them on the agenda and not necessarily how they are ordered in the background guide. Examples:
  • During topic 1 a working paper is submitted and accepted by the dais it is "Draft Resolution 1-1".
  • The next working paper submitted and accepted is then "Draft Resolution 1-2"
  • During the second topic a working paper is submitted and accepted by the dais it is now titled "Draft Resolution 2-1"
  • When a working paper is accepted by the Dais to become a draft resolution the signatories and sponsors are removed and this becomes a document of the body.

Modifications and Amendments

Often a draft resolution needs changes to garner support or to build consensus. CSUMUN provides for these changes through two avenues:

Modifications are usually small in nature, often rewording a phrase for clarity or a rearrangement of ideas. These are changes that all sponsors of the draft resolution agree to being made. Signatory support is not required, but they are usually consulted. All modifications need to be written out on a modification form and submitted to the Dais, with the acceptance and acknowledgement of all sponsors. There is no vote needed for modifications, they are made and introduced to the body once the Dais accepts them.

Amendments are typically more drastic changes to the document and can include, but are not limited to, removing or rewording operative clauses, or changing the scope or intention of a clause. These are changes that do not have the support of all the sponsors. Amendments require ¼ of the delegate support to be accepted by the Dais. They are voted on prior to voting on the draft resolution they affect and require a simple majority to pass. In the case of multiple amendments, they will be voted on in order of most destructive to least destructive, as decided by the Dais. Passed amendments must be considered when voting on the draft resolution. Should a draft resolution include an amendment that changes the intention, a sponsor is able to vote against said draft resolution.

How to be an Effective Delegate

Delegate Handbook (PDF)

Dais Checklist (PDF)

Effective delegates possess the skills to communicate and compromise. The work of the United Nations is a collaboration of different viewpoints and policies; however, most all resolutions passed by the bodies are by consensus. There are several keys to working successfully in your committee:

Research: Topics at CSUMUN are ever-changing issues facing our global society, and as such, research on these topics often update from when Position Papers are submitted. Delegates are reminded that Conference Services provides free internet to provide current research; however, developments on the topics are suspended once Opening Ceremonies begins.

Home Government is a service provided to all delegates looking to get a more in-depth understanding of a particular idea or issue. Student and faculty advisors from CSU volunteer to serve in this position.

Caucusing allows the free flow of ideas and conversation. Outside of the unmoderated and moderated caucus time in sessions, delegates can initiate these conversations over breaks. Please review the unmoderated caucusing on the prior page.

Moderated caucuses allow delegates to have a rapid exchange of ideas in a more formal setting. The caucus works like a conversation, with the Chair facilitating the debate, and no speaker's list.

Virtual Advisor